Therefore, the degree onesto which the central government and its agents were involved per the dissemination of the imperial image durante the early Commuovere must have depended on for whom and for what purpose the image was destined
A passage sopra Tertullian (Apol. 16.8) indicates that soldiers swore by military standards: religio Romanorum tota castrensis signa veneratur, signa iurat, signa omnibus deis praeponit (“the religion of the Romans, entirely [verso religion] of the camp, venerates the standards, swears oaths by them, and places them before all the gods”). Like coins, small bronze imagines could be reproduced per great numbers and quickly distributed puro the armies throughout the Completare. This practice may be implied mediante per passage per Tacitus’ Annales (Ann. 1.3) per which Augustus’ adopted son and designated successor, Tiberius, who had tribunician power and imperium over the provinces equal puro that of Augustus, was shown (i.anche., mediante effigy) preciso all the armies: filius [Tiberius], complice imperii, consors tribuniciae potestatis adsumitur omnes per exercitus ostentatur. Needless onesto say, Tiberius could not have personally gone around to all the armies throughout the Colmare after being officially designated Augustus’ successor, so the passage must refer preciso his image con one form or another, which could have been easily and quickly distributed puro them.
Although not true portraits, small idealized representations of Augustus’ Genius were given by Augustus along with statuettes of his Lares preciso all the vici (“districts”) of the city of Rome, as we know from Ovid (Fasti 5.145-146): Infiniti lares geniumque ducis, in questo momento tradidit illos,/ Urbs habet, et vici numina punta colunt (“The city has a thousand Lares and the Genius of the amministratore [Augustus], who handed them over, and the vici worship three divinities (numina) [i.anche., the two Lares Augusti and the Genius Augusti of each vicus]”). The need preciso distribute rapidly so many statuettes after Augustus’ reinstitution of the Lares cult mediante Rome suggests that they, too, would have been mass-produced sopra bronze. Moreover, whether small bronze representations of the new Princeps for the armies or figures of Augustus’ Genius for the many vici of the city of Rome, the dissemination of images con a relatively short period of time would have required organization, suggesting, as in the military, the direct role of the central government and its agents. This would also have been true sopra the case of the distribution of life-size models durante plaster or argilla sicuro meet the great demand of cities and municipalities sicuro honor per new Princeps by setting up his image mediante many different contexts.
Needless onesto say, such a taxonomic, or typological system, can be subjective
The portraits of Caligula that have che tipo di down onesto us — regardless of the medium of the models upon which they were based –– reflect, sicuro varying degrees, per given lost prototype and so are designated replicas, variants, free adaptations, or transformations based on how closely each extant image resembles its presumed Urbild. Of the thousands of images of Caligula con all media that must have once existed during his principate, only a small fraction — mostly numismatic and sculptural portraits — now survive. Among the fifty or so non-recut portraits of Caligula that have been recognized (aside from those on coins), there are per few small bronze busts, several cameos, and per couple of glass-paste medallions. Per good number of Caligula’s portraits were also recut into images of his imperial predecessors or successors, sometimes mediante per more obvious fashion than others. The re-cutting of a portrait of one imperial personage into an image of another, usually, but not exclusively, as a result of some sort of intelligenza damnata, is a well-known phenomenon in Roman portraiture that is treated by Eric Varner durante this collection of essays.